CSC318: Interactive media course

Role: UI/UX designer

Target Users: Anti vaccination supporters

Team Size: 5

This semester, I am currently taking a course on The Design of Interactive Computational Media with Fanny Chevalier and I thought it would be fun to chronical my journey through this course and update this page with the projects we work on. We have a total of 9 different assignment that accumulate into 1 big project. The topic for the project came from the CHI2018 student design challenge. The idea is to work on something that will engage communities. We are tasked with enpowering, supporting or even changing communities. These are the 9 projects . I'll be updating this page as each project is completed with what we did and what I learned so please feel free to check back every couple weeks!

Jan. 15 - A1:Problem Definition & Group Research Plan Draft

Our team decided that we wanted to focus on health care. We each came up with ideas and decided on tackling education and anti-vaccination supporters.

I started my research trying to find research papers to get insight into this topic. A study done by the Pew Research Center in 2015 showed a few interesting ideas. They asked a few anti-vaccination supporters why they didn't believe in it and some of the answers were interesting:

Some studies showed that sources of information made an importance when it came to decision to vaccinate or not.

Parents of unvaccinated children obtain information mostly from TV/radio (44% versus 37%), newspaper/magazine (30.9% versus 22.4%), friends (14.2% versus 8.6%) and internet (3.6% versus 1.7%) than parents of vaccinated children.

Parents of unvaccinated children less likely obtain information from medical professionals (17.9%) than parents of vaccinated children (38%)


Based on the inital findings we decided on questions and research we wanted answered in our research plan

After coming up with a a few guiding questions for our research, we came up with a research plan for who we should talk to. We divided into 2 categories. Educators and the people who become educated.


  • Doctors, nurses, pharmacist
  • People who run campaigns
    • Philantropists
    • i.e Red Cross
  • Religious leaders
  • Government groups (CDC, FDA)


  • Parents of young and older children
  • The elderly
  • Everyday people

Target audience division: We want to first investigate a broad age + ethnic demographic from North America in order to narrow down which key demographics have problems with drugs and vaccination. Suggestions of groupings for target audience: Parents + Children, Educators + Healthcare workers vs general public, Users of Western medicine vs Naturopathic medicine. Can ask online communities(reddit) to answer surveys + visit University/community groups

Proposed Research Flow:

Proposed Division of Labor:
Divide into groups based on research on educators (2 people) vs general populace (3 people). Plus each person does their own secondary research based on guiding questions.

Educator group: will investigate what messages doctors / pharmacists / teachers / religious leaders / awareness programs / news outlets are spreading and how they are spreading it.

General populace group: will survey and interview target demographic groups (students, alternative medicine users, etc.) to identify unique viewpoints + problems specific to each target demographic group.

Jan. 22 - A2: Formative Study Instruments & Literature Review

For this assignment, we had to pick a paper and review it as well as creating formative study instruments. We had 3 facets to this study. Amongst the 5 of us, 2 people did covert observational studies on vaccine/anti-vaccine support groups, 2 people did simple questionnaires that were given to people on Reddit and Facebook, and 2 people did semi-structured interviews. Along with the research instruments, we had to create a consent form and a research protocol doc outlining what we were doing and the rules we had in place. I was one of the individuals who did interviews. My partner decided to interview anti-vaccination supporters and I did pro-vaccination supporters. The most important part of this interview was to be 100% objective while still trying to get honest answers.

My final questions boiled down to

Jan. 29 - A3: Formative Study Results & Final Group Research Plan

For this assignment, we went out and collected data and summarized all the findings. With this data, we created our first experience map. Based on my personal interviews, here are my findings.

Summary Overview

Research type: Semi-structured interview

Target population: Pro-vaccine supporters

My interviews focused on pro-vaccination supporters. I joined many facebook groups but the ones I got most of my interviewees from was called “vaccine talk: a forum for both pro and anti vaxxers”. I made posts on the group and they volunteered to interview with me.

Quick stats:

Overall atmosphere

The tone and atmosphere of the interviews were very non-emotional. Except for one individual, most participants were very by the rule book when it came to vaccinations. They trusted science and “years of scientific research”. They mainly stayed on topic about vaccines and did not refer to “anti-vaxxers” except for when directly asked. Most of them were analytical and none got flustered or upset during the interview.


The one outlier just intuitively felt that vaccinating her children was intrinsically the right thing to do. She was a medical esthetician. She did not look at any data or do any personal research. She was not concerned with talking to doctors or finding information on the internet. She did, however, have strong opinions on anti-vaxxers. She believed they were “brainwashed” and that there was nothing she could do or wanted to do to convince them otherwise. Her opinion could be due the self proclamation of being “attacked” by anti-vaxxers for her opinion so she started her on group.

Data points on education and vaccine choice:

One woman was an “ex-antivaxxer”, who decided later to become a doctor and learned how to evaluate data during her time in school.

“A friend’s children got whooping cough around the same time and had to be in the hospital. The risk/benefit just looked a lot different.”

Another woman gave others private lessons in statistics or explained concepts given in the abstract of studies to people who did not want to ask out loud. She explained that this helped change the minds of some people she talked to.

"...I’ve had a number of AVs private message me to ask further questions rather than risk being made to feel stupid. As a consequence some have changed their mind and felt more informed. I’ve even led an introduction to basic statistics for a couple of people over Skype before."

Top recurring words or phrases:

Peer review, WHO, CDC, trusting information from doctors, research, science


We combined all of our data and created our summary

Example fallback content: This browser does not support PDFs. Please download the PDF to view it: Download PDF.

And here is our resulting experience map

Feb. 5 - A4: Short Form Creative Brief

For this assignment, we honed in on all of our data and research to focus on a specific problem in the experience and set the requirements.


There exists a lot of misinformation on vaccinations, and there is a gap in education and research skills that impacts how people make informed decisions on vaccinations. This affects primarily new parents and others who are undecided.

Design principles

Through our research of users, our designs aim to be

Environmental requirements

Discreet display of information: A lot of anti-vaccine people were worried their private information would be broadcast, so they used fake names and pictures to hide their identity. We would need to create a system that does not share sensitive personal information.
Used at home during the information search process, likely on some sort of desktop device in possibly a shared space

Functional requirements
Technical requirements

Most people gather information online, so our solution will be online and it should be built with an emphasis on visuals

Usability requirements
Measures of success

Our measure of success is based on how many people we can change their minds to become vaccinated and to teach them to discern about correct or incorrect data.

Key Objective: Create an environment where anti-vaccine supporters can learn how to discern validity of a source and obtain information about vaccines in an accessible format. The design will present scientific information removed from emotional biases and provide resources on evaluating information sources.
Key Principles: Empathy and Simplicity. We strive to create a clear, unbiased environment for every user can feel comfortable and are not judged for their beliefs.

The next task was to start creating personas. Of a collection of 5 that we made, 2 were picked to represent the people we intended to target. One was a full anti-vaccine supporter and the other was an anti-to-pro vaccination supporter.

Sarah Somers, anti-vaccination turned pro-vaccination
Cathy Smith, anti-vaccination advocate

The next step was to create scenarios.We wish to apply our design to the following scenarios: individuals who are undecided, or receptive to changing their stance on vaccinations, and those who wish to learn about verifying their sources.

Scenario 1: Beth has grown up getting vaccines all her life as per her family doctor’s requests. It was time to start vaccinating her own children. Recently due to the flu and vaccine issues, she decided to become more informed. She didn’t have time to go to the doctor’s office to find information, so she decided to look for information online. A Facebook group for natural living made her curious. They shared information about how vaccines were dangerous which cause her to fear for her life. At the same time, she wasn’t sure how to determine if the information was correct or not and sometimes she didn’t even understand how the science worked. She wished there was an easy and reliable way to get information about vaccines, so she could understand how they work better.

Scenario 2: Madison is a new mother of one. She used to work in an office, but recently decided to start her own business on Etsy after having her child, in order to be at home more. She has a degree in political science and obtained a diploma in business administration. During her pregnancy, she decided to investigate information about vaccines for her child, and was daunted by the recommended vaccine schedule, the ingredients in vaccines, and the amount of information available online, some of it conflicting. She also joined groups on Facebook to meet like- minded parents and new parents and is concerned about the number of vaccination injury stories she hears about. While she makes it a point to look at information sources that cite multiple studies or other scientific looking sources, there is a lot of misinformation and it is both tiring and difficult to research. Madison prefers to keep the environment as “natural” as possible for her child, including minimal artificial additives and medications. She adores her daughter and wants her to grow up healthy and happy, but sometimes worries about if she’s making the right choices.

Scenario 3: Debby is a married mom with four children who didn’t vaccinate her kids but believes in natural medicine. She employs eastern medicinal techniques whenever her or her children gets sick. So far, she has had a healthy family with little to no incidences of serious illness. She believes that under the right diet and proper preventative measures, the body is naturally equipped to handle any germs or diseases that invades it, hence her and her family practices that. She claims that she also gets second opinion from her family doctor when necessary, however she is averse to chemicals and prefer using naturally occurring medicines in treating her children. Debby and her husband are university graduates and has sufficient scientific knowledge. They understand how vaccines work and the ingredients that it is made off, however they argue that under the right circumstances and the right environment (i.e. a healthy diet and a healthy dose of regular exercise) the body’s immune system can create its own vaccines.

Feb. 13 - A5: Low-Fidelity Prototypes

For this assignment we needed to come up with high level tasks the users would perform.

The task chosen for this assignment was to search information about vaccines and get information about them. From the main page, the user can search their input or look for data from A-Z lists. Based on what they know, they can try to find diseases and look at vaccines or look for specific vaccines themselves. They can also pick multiple vaccines on the market to compare them. Once they have selected the vaccine(s), they click on it to see more information about it. If they wish to pick vaccines like a shopping cart, they can add to favourites and schedule them if they want to. They can also go back and pick different vaccines. From any page, one can access their favourites page since it is part of a stick navigation bar.
Assumptions: Users have already logged in and are currently on the main page
Technology used: Website because more people get their information from online because of ease of access.

After the HTA was complete, I made the wireframes that were to be used for usability testing.

Rationale Behind the Design

The rationale behind the design was getting information. Of the high level tasks the team came up with, I chose getting information about vaccines. In the first page, we allowed for vaccine search and diseases search. Some people may not know what types of vaccines are out there so this would help them see their options. On the other hand, if someone knew exactly what vaccine they wanted to know about, then that is an option for them too. There is a link to A-Z listings to allow for people to see all available vaccines and disease preventable vaccines. The next major design choice was having the ability to compare two vaccines. Since many diseases have multiple vaccines, it can be confusing for the common person to understand the difference. Having the relevant information available helps the user see the difference quickly. The next step was the ability to add vaccines to the person’s favourites for later scheduling. The rationale behind this was to allow the person to pick out all the vaccinations they wanted and then have them all in a convenient place where they can schedule them later.

Description of the Solution

I used a website for this project because during the research phase, most of the users agreed they tried to find information online so it would be smart to target the location they use the most, the internet. Also, since getting vaccinated is a long process in terms of the schedule, a mobile application may not get daily use because it’s information based and people may delete it from lack of use or storage space. The task should allow for quick searching and comparison of different vaccines so the user can make a more informed choice after getting all of the facts. In terms of interactions, I expected the user to have no knowledge of the vaccines themselves so the ability to search by diseases was added. I expected them to be unsure about which vaccine was right for them so having the ability to compare them side by side would make it easier to choose. I was expecting them to choose a vaccine and add it to 2 their favourites which will then allow them to schedule it when they were ready to receive it.

Usability Testing

Usability Script
Scenario: You were told by your doctor that you need the HPV vaccine as you are long overdue. You have a set of other vaccines you need to take too but for now, you just want to find out what HPV is and what the best vaccine for you would be. You want to know the differences between what is on the market and how they may impact you.
Usability Task

I performed 8 tests with the above set up and here are my results:

What was Discovered (General Results)

Overall, most users got the general flow of the test. Everyone was able to complete the task within the allocated ten minutes. There was general confusion about the navigation of the page and where to go next in order to complete the task. Some of these errors were just about not having enough pages to emulate other choices of vaccines and comparisons, but the overall experience was good. Some of the users missed parts because it wasn’t clear enough for them or they didn’t understand what they were supposed to do to achieve their goal so they kept going back to other pages to try and find it.

I chose 2 pages where users had the most trouble. The search page and the compare vaccines page

For the search page, here were some of the problems

Then to fix it, I created this:

The next page was the comparison page:

Then to fix it, I created this:

To be continued